Nutrition is an important part of the whole process in the treatment of chronic diseases such as end-stage renal disease. Changes in lifestyle, including proper nutrition, adequate physical activity, and cessation of smoking. Since blood pressure is associated with blood sugar, it is also an important factor for chronic kidney failure. Nutrition is very important in the treatment of hemodialysis, which is one of the treatment methods of ESRD. Because nutrition in hemodialysis patients helps to progress the disease and to prevent possible complications. During hemodialysis treatment, most of the uremic toxins accumulated in the body are excreted in a short time. But during this time, nutrients useful for the body are also lost (proteins, vitamins, minerals). In hemodialysis patients; adequate intake of energy, protein, salt, sodium, potassium, phosphorus and water is important.
Severe dietary restrictions are applied to patients in the initial stages of chronic renal failure, but after the individual starts dialysis treatment, flexibility in diet can be provided. There are 4 elements that patients should pay attention to in general. These; salt, potassium, phosphorus minerals and water management.
Fluid management is adjusted according to the patient's urine volume;
The daily amount of fluid that dialysis patients should take depends on the amount of urine is + 750+1000ml (average: 3-4 glasses of water) liquid. It should not be forgotten that this amount of liquid is included in the liquids taken with food.
The other substance is sodium chloride, that is, the amount of salt provided by the diet. In patients undergoing dialysis treatment, it is desirable that the daily sodium intake in the diet should be below 2-4 g.
-You can choose your bread without salt and add 1 pinch of salt to your meals.
Another mineral that patients should consume limitedly is phosphorus. The main food sources of phosphorus: meat products, especially smoked fermented meat products, dairy products, egg yolks, seafood, legumes and nuts, packaged products (biscuits, crackers, chocolate, wafers, chips, etc.) are ready-to-eat foods. Inorganic phosphorus, which is found in ready-made foods and packaged products, is easier to absorb in the body, so do not forget to examine the label information of the product when consuming packaged products.
The foods in the meat group are rich in protein and phosphorus mineral, therefore, patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment should consume the foods from the meat group carefully. The amount of protein limited in diet before dialysis treatment disappears after starting dialysis treatment. Hemodialysis patients should prefer the following meet foods such as beef, lamb, chicken, duck, turkey, soybean, egg white or whole egg.
Another mineral restricted in patients is potassium mineral. The amount of potassium intake in the diet varies according to the serum potassium level of the individual, but 2-3 g/day is generally recommended in patients with HD treatment. Potassium is found in almost every food. Among the main food groups of potassium; fruits, vegetables, legumes and oilseeds. Generally speaking, hemodialysis patients have the right to 2 portions of fruit and 1 portion of vegetables per day. 1 portion of fruit is 1 handful. 1 portion of vegetables is 4-5 tablespoons. Take care that the food is dehydrated and salt-free, and do not forget that especially yellow-orange fruits, dried fruits and vegetables, raw green leaves of vegetables contain more potassium. However, you can peel, slice, soak in warm water for 2 hours, rinse, then cook and consume potassium-rich foods such as potatoes, carrots, and winter squash. This method reduces the amount of potassium in foods. You can do the same for legumes.
Remember that the diet is unique to the individual, the application of a treatment method accompanied by a dietitian during dialysis treatment. Healthy nutrition treatment applications significantly increase the survival rates, thus being effective in better dialysis adequacy and quality of life standards.
Individuals who receive dietitian counseling in our center can have information about every issue related to their nutrition throughout their treatment. Our goal is to create a permanent change in eating habits and to ensure healthy living standards.